How to read Ancient Philosophers and Manuscripts

Researching Metamorphoses of Psyche, Un- and enlightenment

done by Nataša Pantović

“Only by discovering have I clearly understood that the Unconscious is a process and that ego’s rapports with the unconscious and his contents initiate an evolution, more precisely a real metamorphoses of the psyche…”

Jung quote about Alchemy

In our wish to relate to omnipotent, omniscience, and omnipresence , we use art, music or poetry to express since Ratio has no unobstructed pathways towards .

The Mystical knowledge is gained either through contemplating art or comprehending Air / Earth / Water / Sun as the most immanent physical sources of life. These are different spiritual paths to from the Himalayan monk meditating, through the fisherman out in the open sea, to the artist composing a masterpiece.

Isaac Newton 1642 – 1726

Isaac Newton 1642 – 1726, at Manchester UK, Library

How to read Ancient Philosophers and Manuscripts

Forgetfulness and Unconsciousness

Until recently we couldn’t quite understand our neighbors even if we tried… the first Polyglot Bible was published around 1570 containing text in five languages: Hebrew, Syriac, Greek, Latin and Chaldean.

Bartolomeo Altomonte An allegory of the Enlightenment

An Image from Wikipedia, by User:Fb78 

"One of the seven ceiling frescoes painted by Bartolomeo Altomonte in his 80th year for the library of Admont Abbey. An allegory of the Enlightenment, it shows Aurora, goddess of dawn, with the geniuses of language in her train awakening Morpheus, god of dreaming, a symbol of man. The geniuses are Grammar, Didactic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin." Wikipedia Link

Why do you think the geniuses of language in her train awakens Morpheus, God of dreaming, who symbolizes the man?

Forgetfulness, Alchemy and Poetry and Unconsciousness

“For primitive man,…, His country is neither a geographical nor a political entity. It is that territory which contains his mythology, his religion, all his thinking and feeling in so far as he is unconscious of these functions. His fear is localized in certain places that are “not good.” The spirits of the departed inhabit such and such a wood. That cave harbors devils who strangle any man who enters. In yonder mountain lives the great serpent; that hill is the grave of the legendary king; near this spring or rock or tree every woman becomes pregnant; that ford is guarded by snake-demons; this towering tree has a voice that can call certain people. Primitive man is unpsychological. Psychic happenings take place outside him in an objective way. Even the things he dreams about are real to him…

Jung, Lecture, Archaic Man, Collected Works, Civilization in Transition

A German Philosopher Goethe, so much loved and appreciated by Jung, has done his first novel at the age of 20, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe has written four novels; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and color, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings. The same constructive consciousness manifestation focused age happened to Nietzsche, who has also self-published all his work. Tolstoy had a family fortune supporting his knowledge, so his wisdom and beauty of expression kept enlightening the Humankind even when he was very old. Giordano Bruno, for example, spent whole of his life researching and teaching Science as a Priest or Tesla pioneered the science of his and our time. Reading the works of these Saints, we must wonder can our intelligence even comprehend its wisdom and depth…

While raring our knowledge perhaps we shall be planting a walnut tree, instead of searching for instant grass gratifications. Trusting the local knowledge-build, with plenty time and space to express, choosing the best possible teachers, preferably poets as suggested by Jung, appreciating the wisdom of our ancestors, within this versatile Humanity, might help us enter the path of quantum Physics, Applied Psychology and deeper emotional comprehending of Ancient Philosophies.

Deuteronomy I-X,7, 4th century, a Papyri Collection in Hebrew, text of an Old testament at Manchester UK, Library, a Bodmer Collection copy

Deuteronomy I-X,7, 4th century, a Papyri Collection in Hebrew, text of an Old testament at Manchester UK, Library, a Bodmer Collection copy

Story of Isaac and Bartolomeo’s Aurora

Exercising local Knowledge is like inputting various little known parameters into any picture, combining Gaia’s wellness, health and pleasure, within a matrix of each and every one of us. The humanity’s basket of experiences is so complexly bound together. We can see a spiral in all our progress including history.

When in my 30s I hated the story of Isaac, the son of Abraham and Sarah and Abraham's willingness to follow God's command to sacrifice Isaac as his new born baby boy; such a horrible myth where God establishes a relationship with Abraham through the sacrifice of his son. Much later, I learned that we all hate it, because no intelligent human being will ever rationally debate killing of own-son for any God’s sake. It is a twisted mythological story of the Old Testament so that a natural parent’s hatred will burn in our hears with a justified anger towards even a thought form that supports such sick thinking, with a strong drive to detest it, “remove it”, collectively attack it.

Ligh as Symbol of Divine

In art, the light is used to symbolically represent the within this versatile for ever changing Universe, so Christian Saints or Angels have light above their heads.

In common with both the other surviving early papyri of John's Gospel; P45. The manuscript contains, consistently, the use of Nomina Sacra.

The initial system of nomina sacra apparently consisted of just four or five words, called nomina divina: the Greek words for Jesus, Christ, Lord, God, and possibly Spirit.

Use of Nomina Sacra expressing divine

Use of Nomina Sacra in the Orthodox Christian art, the opening verses of Revelation - Ἰησοῦς Χριστός (Jesus Christ) as ΙC ΧC

In movies, the light is used within films, like in the film Titanic, to increase the emotional intensity within audience when they are hearing of the old lady’s splendid past. When watching the film, do notice how her eyes always shine, leaving us with this collective trust that she must be sincere. Within the Humanity’s past we met these inspired eyes when Philosophers preached, or when artists expressed their love for God, but also when we listened to some inspired youths with their “Holy Spirit” blessed TV personality.

"... even the angels thought Adam the lord of all, and they were about to salute him with "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts," when God caused sleep to fall upon him, and then the angels knew that he was but a human being. The purpose of the sleep that enfolded Adam was to give him a wife, so that the human race might develop, and all creatures recognize the difference between God and man."

A Hebrew story, about family, a Priest explaining Old Testament

The History of Written Expression

Throughout the history of ancient Rome, the Greek was spoken by the well-educated elite, who acquired Greek tutors from educated Greek prisoners’ slaves. Within the Byzantine Empire, the Greek was never replaced by Latin - also called Romanic languages.

China led the books printing revolution. The first completed printed book on paper is the Diamond Sutra (in the British Library) of 868AC, during the ninth century. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, and some other Confucian classics were in print.

Reverently made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents on the 13th of the 4th moon of the 9th year of Xiantong i.e. 11th May, CE 868 . Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

A page from the Diamond Sutra, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i.e. 868 CE. Currently located in the British Library, London.

Around 1040, the first known movable type porcelain printing press was created in China by Bi Sheng. Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty.

Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's"

Korean book-Jikji-Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters-1377

Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters-1377, Korean book, Bibliotheque Nationale de France

Christian Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire. Before the adoption of the printing press, books were copied by hand, expensive and rare. Smaller monasteries had only a few dozen books, at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of the Sorbonne held only around 2,000 books.

The scriptorium of the monastery was usually over the chapter house where artificial lights were forbidden done only in day-light by enthusiastic students...

European output of manuscripts and printed books 500AC–1800AC

The history of printing in Europe from 500AC to 1800 follows an interesting line.

European Output of Books 500–1800

European Output of Books 500–1800, Wikipedia Image

In mid-20th century, European book production had risen to over 200,000 titles per year.

Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion.

Do you ever wonder within this explosion, what is your truth?

Burning Books and Forbidden Books

According to Elaine Pagels, "In AD 367, Athanasius, the zealous bishop of Alexandria... issued an Easter letter in which he demanded that Egyptian monks destroy all such unacceptable writings, except for those he specifically listed as 'acceptable' even 'canonical'—a list that constitutes the present 'New Testament'"

When the burning is widespread and systematic, the destruction of books and media can be a component of cultural genocide. We all with pain remember the burning of the Library of Alexandria (c. 49), the destruction of Aztec codices by Itzcoatl in 1430s, and the burning of Maya’s indigenous American civilizations manuscripts on the order of bishop Diego de Landa in 1562.

According to Wikipedia “In 1244, as an outcome of the Disputation of Paris, twenty-four carriage loads of Talmuds and other Jewish religious manuscripts were set on fire  in the streets of Paris.”

Forbidden Books 

We still find the lists of forbidden books by Inquisition within the archives of Vatican.

Banned Name    Works

Complete works 1585 Dante Alighieri

Complete works 1600 Bruno, Giordano. The Inquisition's ban on reprinting was lifted in 1718

Complete works 1616 to 1835 Nicolaus Copernicus

Complete works to 1835 Johannes Kepler

1663 Descartes, René Meditations (1641); Les passions de l'âme (1649); Opera philosophica.

1679, 1690 Spinoza, Baruch, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1677); Opera posthuma

1827 Kant, Immanuel, Critique of Pure Reason (1781; revised 1787)

1841 Balzac, Honoré de Omnes fabulae amatoriae 

1894 Zola, Émile, Opera omnia

1948 Sartre, Jean-Paul

until 1959 Victor Hugo, Notre Dame de Paris (1831); Les Misérables (1862)

A Subjective Truth

When discussing the Lady Truth, we acknowledge that it always connects to our subjective Soul’s view of the world. The truth means “my Objective experience of Reality”, so with this in mind, do you know why Germans have the best bread on Gaia and why does this matter?

If you are born German you might even ignore a need to debate this little so subjective truth, agreeing with a Reason powered with Intuitive Knowledge of a traveler who explored 50+ countries on all the continents and is Gaia conscious. Yours ancestors’ 100s of years of baking research that has gradually improved a super unhealthy white bread into a super tasty healthy loaf is within your set of local knowledge and experiences. If you are in your 20s, you will see no value in this statement. If you are anywhere over 40, you will resonate with it, because your health research has already convinced you of how difficult it is to get rid of an unhealthy piece of bread, whilst getting rid of Gluten, claims Djoković, the World’s Champion, got him his first Golden Medal in tennis.

When public libraries appeared, up to the 18th century, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft. As you can imagine it was not book lovers who would ever steal, for how many book lovers were poor or uneducated?

Jews didn’t quite have public libraries where a “stranger” could possibly hope to learn Hebrew and explore the script within their local knowledge set-up. Judaism values the Torah scroll to such an extent that if placed in a synagogue it must be written by hand on parchment so a printed book would not do,

In the Islamic Golden Age, 8th century to 13th, Islamic calligraphy, miniatures and bookbinding flourished, yet none of the images within the books had any religious connotations. Yaqubi 9th century, says that in his time Baghdad had over a hundred booksellers. Today we find the most beautiful poems exploring God – Allah, yet the illustrations are very generic: flowers, or simple decorations. Within Islam we find no images of Christ or Allah, so no idol worship could take place.

Listening to our historians, we know for certain that the destroyed books, and art works are irreplaceable, often changing history in various ways.

If you are a Head of your-own Pack whether living in a Forest of Amazonia or fishing through Oceans, you try hard to understand the World the best you can. It is not always easy for all the followers of the Pack to understand that Life is a complex venture, always demanding new learnings.

Being too busy arguing various points of views, philosophizing, or fighting own partner, we assume that somewhere else animals do not need rearing, plants watering, sick do not need care, and children fall perfect from the sky. Within this life-long quest, so many of us create our-own little Universes, marrying and building own “perfect” families, yet the reflection inside the life-mirror says over and over that we err, especially when expressing judgments too hasty...

Respecting the knowledge of our Ancestors, Saints and Scientists, applying Clear Reason and Intuitive Wisdom within this dynamic orphic, hermaphrodite Universe of Unconscious Manifestations, at this stage of our evolution, we ask own Souls how to live life healthier, happier, or stronger.

Why is subconscious mind Amoeba covered in Mold

Tina Turner - Sarvesham Svastir Bhavatu (Peace Mantra)

From Ancient China through Jung to Conscious Living

Conscious Living

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